The main difference between a federal state and a unitary state is that a federal state is an association of several sub-states and a unitary state is a centrally governed state.
Germany and Switzerland are considered federal states and France and Italy as Unitary state .
What is a state?
A federal state consists of several states or federal states. These own states or federal states are connected to one another and give up a large part of their independence. Every state needs a big government. This big government then decides for all united states.
This is exactly the case with Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany is administered and directed by a Federal President and a Federal Government. These are based in the capital Berlin.
The individual states are also known under the term federal states. These have their own state government . Individual tasks, such as laws and administrative tasks, are divided between the individual federal states and the large government of the state.
In addition to Germany, there are other federal states, for example Switzerland , Austria , USA and Canada .
The advantage of a state is that all states can express their own needs and wishes.
The disadvantage is, of course, that there are a lot of cumbersome paths to follow before a decision can be made.
What is a unitary state?
A unitary state has only one state authority. In a unitary state, there is a uniform legislation and administration, as well as a single administration of justice. A unitary state can be divided into small districts or provinces.
The main advantage of a unitary state is that there are quick and short decision-making channels. There is no need to consult several authorities and ask for a decision. This also results in lower costs and simpler government structures.
It can be said, disadvantageously, that a unitary state cannot take every area of the country into consideration. This mostly affects small regions. The interests and concerns are often not taken into account here.