The Aswan Dam was built on the Nile and has many advantages and disadvantages for the people and the environment along the Nile. We try to take a closer look at these advantages and disadvantages.



The advantages of the Aswan Dam:

At first glance, a very big advantage is the large area of ​​usable land that was gained in the course of the dam and the irrigation of the usable areas via the Toschka project. The year-round secure water supply for Egyptian agriculture along the Nile is essential. Artificial irrigation of the farmers’ fields in Egypt is necessary because the land is very dry.

The ecological power generation in the dam’s power plants located on the reservoir is environmentally friendly and indispensable in view of the natural phases along the Nile.

The dam is also used to regulate the water level on the lower reaches of the river and to prevent flooding on the Nile . On the Nile it is difficult to assess whether this is more of an advantage or a disadvantage. The lower reaches of the Nile used to be flooded at regular intervals. The flood water had contained the plague of rats and the water spread Nile mud over the fields and fertilized the fields with it. Neither is possible with the reservoir now.




Disadvantages of the Aswan Dam:

I have already mentioned the first disadvantage. The outstretched lack of flooding at the lower end of the Nile. There is unintentional wind erosion of the usable areas.
The salting of the earth around the Nile by the more modern irrigation methods. The former regular flood of the Nile washed the salts into deeper layers. There has also been an extreme decline in the abundance of fish in the Mediterranean following the construction of the dam.

The biodiversity on the Nile could have been endangered. Most of the disadvantages are not noticed until decades later, usually when it is too late.

If you can think of any other advantages or disadvantages to building a dam, please write us down in the comments!